March 27, 2014

Checking in on the recently filled lambic barrels

Last weekend I went up to check on the barrels from our brew day a couple months ago.  Given that this was the first time using a coolship, I was a little anxious to see how they were doing.

Taking a step back, I realize I haven't written anything about the brew day itself.  It was a full weekend and somehow everything went off without a hitch.  There is a great write up here summarizing the weekend better than I could.  The brewers at O'so have got the process down and are very efficient at doing what they do. Compared to previous years (which I have notes posted), there is very to add regarding the brewing.  Post-brew however, the wort went from the boil kettle to the coolship that had been temporarily installed outside under a large tent to rest overnight.
Lambic coolship filling
Coolship filling with lambic wort.  (photo credit)
From literature on the process, I was hoping the wort would be ~70°F the next morning.  We got in around 8:30 am and checked it with a digital thermometer which read 70°F exactly.  I was ecstatic to say the least. The inoculated wort was then pumped into a large tank to ensure everything was homogeneous, and then pumped into barrels.  Some of the barrels filled were straight from the winery and some of the barrels filled were previously emptied lambic barrels.  They were all thoroughly cleaned out with 200°F water prior to filling.

So, back to being up there and checking in on the barrels.  I was able to taste from barrels that had previously held our lambic, but the barrels that were our first use were tucked away such that we couldn't get to them without a forklift.  There was an event going on at the brewery, so I'll wait for another day to check in on those.  I am curious to see if there will be a distinction between the two sets of barrels.

I am a firm believer that, while a coolship imparts a new generation of microflora into the wort, much of the fermentation process is guided by the yeast/bacteria already in the barrel.  Cleaning the barrel, even at the high temperatures we do, will never sanitize the barrels completely and yeast/bacteria residing deeper in the wood will survive.  Through generations of culling barrels, a brewery is able to build a "house flavor".  You will find others who argue the relative impact of the coolship on the fermentation process is greater than that of the barrel.  Its an interesting argument if you really like nerding out about this stuff, and having these two sets of barrels is my way of testing things out.

It was interesting to taste the barrels that were accessible.  At this age there is little you can tell about how the beer will turn out, but I am able to see if its "on track".  First, I am making sure it did in fact ferment instead of spoil.  Given this was the first time spontaneously fermenting via coolship, that concern was lingering in the back of my mind.  But everything checked out.  It actually tasted almost exactly as the previous year's barrels did at this point.  It has a light tartness and an ever so slight brett character. The only difference I noticed from prior batches was there was a sweet lime flavor.  Is this an impact of local microflora?  In addition to these flavors, there is this phenolic flavor which we've noticed in previous batches as well. Its just an odd stage our lambic goes through. The reason I mention this is so home brewers who may be reading this know that these early off flavors are not a reason to dump your beer.  Honestly, there is no reason to even taste your lambic in the first 9 months.  I just do it for fun and because I can pull out of a sample port below the pellicle line.

March 11, 2014

Introducing Leidel's Cider

Allow me to formally introduce Mitch Leidel and our joint project -- Leidel's Cider.  Over the last year and a half, I have been documenting our cider experiments.  So much so that I added a Cider tab to the blog to separate this work from the lambic work.  We learned a lot about what does and doesn't work when making Brett fermented cider.  Fortunately we had enough success in the pilot batches to start a Cidery this year and take our knowledge to a commercial scale.  Not only is Leidel's Cider the first to bottle a 100% Brett fermented cider, but we will be focusing exclusively on developing this style of cider!

100% Brett Cider - Hebron
Our first bottling - Hebron.  100% Brett Fermented Brut Cider.
I've asked Mitch to tell you how Leidel's Cider came to be and summarize what we've done so far.  So without further ado, here is Mitch Leidel:
18 months ago, I graduated college and moved back to the family orchard to assume management responsibilities. It was the hope of seeing the orchard again be a functioning operation that brought me back. It had undergone several tough years, and almost ushered our exit from the apple business entirely. My duties were simple and consisted solely of managing our retail operation and facilitating sales of our untended cider crop. The future outlook was bleak and uncertain. 
This took a welcome turn after a conversation with Levi Funk, a family friend passionate about wild fermentation. At the time, he was working with O’so Brewery on some special release beers while starting his own lambic operation, Funk Factory. We found ourselves talking of craft cider’s potential, and Levi brought up Brett fermentation as a potentially unique approach. Thus marked the inception of Leidel’s Cider.

Our first move was to determine if Brett would produce favorable results in cider. To begin our experimentation, we formulated a handful of pilot batches. These included a spontaneously fermented cider, a Farmhouse style cider, 11 different brett ciders, and an old world cider technique called a Keeve.

The juice for these ciders was custom blended by incorporating specific amounts of different apple varieties. In developing a blend, there are three main factors to consider: Brix, pH, and tannin. Brix is a measure of sugar content, pH a measure of acidity, and tannin one of bitterness or astringency. When all factors are in equilibrium, the cider is said to be “balanced”. To ensure this happens, a cidermaker incorporates the necessary amount of different apple varieties to achieve appropriate Brix, pH, and tannin levels. While some blend cider after fermentation, we blended prior to fermentation. Our desired Brix level was ~13, an OG of 1.052. The desired pH was 3.3. Tannin levels, although vital, were not a huge factor in deciding our blend as high tannin apples are virtually nonexistent in our region. Because of this, we used readily available dessert apples such as Haralson, McIntosh, and Wealthy. With each variety accounting for roughly ⅓ of the final blend, it had a pH of ~3.3 and Brix of 12.6, or 1.050 OG.

Everything but the Keeve took about 6 weeks to ferment. We then pulled samples to taste and gauge the initial product. The two barrel fermented ciders (spontaneous and saison) resulted in a fairly lackluster product. Nothing groundbreaking there. The panel of Brett, however, produced some pretty interesting results. We tasted everything, made notes, and scored the ciders. They were given a 5 week aging and clarifying period, and then tasted again, noting our findings. At this point, the ciders we felt had the highest potential were selected and bottled. We wanted to see how these ciders continued to develop in the bottle to determine how to create our flagship ciders.

At this time, the Keeve had completed fermentation and was just finishing a few month period of aging and clarification. It was then primed and bottled. We anticipated this period of bottle conditioning to be lengthier than normal because Keeved juice by nature is low in nutrients that feed yeast. This period however, took quite a bit longer than expected, but the final product had a nice Brett funk and a beautiful clarity. In future productions, we’ll likely aid the bottle conditioning process through addition of yeast nutrient. We would also like at some point to incorporate the Methode Champenoise into this cider to further refine the quality.
After assessing these experimental batches, it was conferred we had a handful of commercially viable ciders. We thus made plans to commence commercial production the ensuing fall with roughly 1,000 gallons of Brett “table” cider and 180 gallons of Keeve. The interim, time was occupied by the administrative work of legally and physically establishing a cider facility. As fall neared, equipment was purchased, fruit arranged for, pressing logistics coordinated, and an endless list of miscellaneous tasks completed. We were still fighting the clock to finish preparations when pressing time came. This paired with pressing over five times the previous years production, kept us quite busy.

2013’s pressing was completed at a neighboring farm that utilized a large continuous belt press. In this style of press, pomace is placed between two vinyl belts that transfer it through a series of steel rollers. The rollers extract the juice which is collected in large trays underneath and then transferred into a holding tank. In all, 17 bins of apples were pressed which yielded about 1,000 gallons.

Unfortunately, this press was unable to logistically press for a Keeve, so we had to resort to other means. We used an electric grinder and bladder press rather than the hand mill and crank press employed in previous years. The electric grinder was far faster than a hand mill, milling 3 bins, or 2,400 lbs., of apples in several hours. This yielded ~360 gallons of pomace which was packed into containers, covered to prevent oxidation, and left to macerate for 24 hours. The next day a 30 gallon bladder press was used to extract the juice. Our final yield was 155 gallons, slightly less than our goal of 180 gallons. Keeving is closer to an art than a science as it is never a guarantee a successful keeve will take place. While we were successful on our first batch, the keeving was unfortunately not successful this time. It is an art we plan to continue learning about though. It wasn’t a loss either as the juice went into freshly dumped 12 year Bourbon barrels, a technique we wouldn’t have explored if not for this circumstance.

For our larger pressing, the blend was similar to last years with pH and sugar levels again being our main focus. A decision to use more McIntosh for aromatics was one of the only tweaks made. The pH was 3.3 and Brix 12.6, or 1.051 OG. All juice was pumped into 4 different 330 gallon IBC totes; each tote was filled with a maximum of 250 gallons, leaving adequate headspace. These totes are quite economical and widely used by those entering the American hard cider industry as well as food production of various kinds. We, thus, decided, to utilize these vessels as fermentation tanks for our first commercial production. 
At this time, our flagship ciders have finished primary fermentation, doing so in approximately 6 weeks, and undergone a several month period of maturation and clarification. In addition, our first ever commercial bottling took place just last weekend with 2,200 bottles of our Hebron cider being packaged. Find your liquor store’s cider section and watch it closely as distribution into Minnesota commences soon. And be sure to check out leidelscider.com or follow Leidel's Cider on Facebook for detailed information on future releases.

January 21, 2014

Action packed weekend.

Friday - January 24th
I will be arriving early to O'so to help with the brew day and to get things set up for the bottle release that evening.  The brew day will start at 5:00am to target a 7:00pm flame out and filling of the coolship.  Its a long brew day, but will actually be shorter than it was last year since we won't be filling barrels until the next morning. The O'so Tap House opens at 3:00pm and the bottle sales will start at 5:00pm.  Cash only.
Bottles release on Friday night (L-R): Winds of Change, Scarlet Letter, Dweller on the Threshold, and Sikaru
The coolship is to be delivered Thursday afternoon, and unless Marc decides to take on the task of setting it up that evening, this will be my top priority on Friday.  We are setting it up behind the brewery, but the ground there isn't level, so building up timber supports may be a bit tricky.  Keep in mind the coolship itself weighs ~750lbs dry and will be nearly 7,000lbs when filled on Friday.
30bbl finished coolship at fabrication shop.
One thing I am particularly excited about is kicking off the "Fermentation is Art" series (click link to learn more).  In this series, I will be working with artists to create a piece of original artwork inspired by the beer's concept.  We will have 25 gift sets for sale at the release that include a signed and numbered archival print along with a bottle of Dweller on the Threshold.  If you would like to reserve a gift set, email us.
Gift set featuring Amy Swoboda's Dweller on the Threshold artwork.

Saturday - January 25th
Its back to the brewery early in the morning.  Depending on the weather, it may be very early.  The colder it is, the faster the wort will cool and so the earlier we will have to transfer it out.  I am targeting ~70 degree wort temperature before emptying the coolship.  From there it will go into a mixing tank to make sure everything is homogeneous, and then we will fill barrels.  I cleaned all of the barrels last weekend.  I want to be able to see the effects of using "horny" barrels vs "new" barrels.  "Horny" barrels are barrels we have used for lambic already, and "new" barrels are barrels we have just received from wineries.  Both have been cleaned out thoroughly with boiling hot water, but there will always be microbes living deep in the wood that will come out and play a role in fermenting the new lambic wort.

After barrels are filled we will have some clean up to do and then it is off to Central Waters' 16th Anniversary party. Amazing beer and amazing people make this event a must every year!

Sunday - January 26th
We will make our way back to Madison, where that evening Forequarter will be doing a special beer dinner. The dinner is 6 courses paired with all 4 of the beers we release on Friday and 2 cocktails for $85.  I've been shown a preview of the menu they have designed and you will not be disappointed!
Call Forequarter at 608.609.4717 to make a reservation for Sunday night.
As always, they are doing some amazing stuff.  Hope to see there, especially if you aren't able to make it up to O'so on Friday evening!

December 13, 2013

Lambic Brew Day and Bottle Release


On January 24th, 2014 Funk Factory Geuzeria will be brewing a traditional lambic with O’so Brewing. After 2 years of “practice” and dialing in the Turbid Mash process, we now have a 1,000 gallon capacity Coolship and will be able to spontaneously ferment our Lambic!

To celebrate, we will have 4 limited-release sour and funky beers available for sale at 5:00pm. We invite beer lovers to come watch the coolship filling at the O’so Tap House and pick up these limited bottles. Cheers!

Facebook Event Page
O’so Tap House
3028 Village Park,
Plover, WI


Dweller on the Threshold - 5.25% ABV - Blended American Sour - 450 bottles
Artwork for this label was done by Amy Swoboda and kicks off our "Fermentation is Art" series. In this series we will commission artists to create original pieces of art inspired by the concept of the beer. Amy is a Cincinnati artist and will be at the release selling 25 signed and numbered prints of the original artwork. First come first serve. Proceeds from this bottle will help Funk Factory pay for the coolship. Thank you for your support!

Sikaru - 12.75% ABV - American Sour with Dates - 430 bottles


Scarlet Letter - 5.5% ABV - Cranberry Sour Blonde - 360 bottles


Winds of Change - 5.5% ABV - American Pale Ale with Brett - 3,000 bottles

September 13, 2013

Cider Keeve: Day 270

We are just about at the 9 month mark from when I started the cider keeve experiment.  It was bottled at the 6 month mark and so has been conditioning in the bottle for the last 3 months.  As a recap, "keeving" is an old French cider making process that removes nutrients from the cider.  This results in a slow fermenting environment in which I applied lambic yeast/bacteria with the goal of emulating a typical lambic fermentation in cider, and it worked.

When I bottled the cider, I anticipated it would take up to 3 months to carbonate as that is common amongst lambics.  I opened a bottle after about a month and a half, and it was dead still.  Though slightly worried, I gave it some more time.  Last night, as we approach the 3 month mark, I opened a bottle to check on it. The cork was stubborn, but came out with a faint "psht".  No head formed as I poured the cider, but some bubbles did accumulate briefly on the side of my glass.

It is not nearly as carbonated as I would like, but nice to see something form.  I will continue to let this condition, but am thinking about how to correct this for next time.  The critical element in this cider is that there is a lack of nutrients.  While this is beneficial to getting saccharomyces and brettanomyces to ferment in tandem, at the point of bottling, I am afraid that there just isn't enough nutrients to properly carbonate the cider.  Next time I might try adding some yeast nutrients along with the priming sugar.

The cider is a very pretty color and crystal clean when poured in a glass. There is, however, some yeast sediment that accumulated at the bottom of the bottle during conditioning. Because of how crystal clear this is, I think the riddling and disgorging process of Champagne might make a nice finish.  Its a lot of work, but I might consider doing this on part or all of the next batch.

The plan as of now is to fill 2 barrels with keeved cider juice and ferment it the same way this batch was done.  Adding barrel aging and fermentation will certainly be beneficial, but this has to be one of the most labor intensive and expensive ciders to produce.  Custom pressing, risky keeving process, lambic-style fermentation, extended barrel aging, long bottle conditioning time, and possibly adding riddling/disgorging finish....yikes.  At least the final result is worth it!

Aroma:  Smells of apples and pears.  There is a brett funk that is subtle but definitely noticeable.

Appearance: Very attractive appearance.  Crystal clear with some bubbles forming ever so slightly.  I can imagine this would be beautiful with bubbles cascading up.

Taste:  Apple "juice" flavor is very mellow, but the apple skin tannin flavor is more pronounced.  I am pleasantly surprised with how tart it got. Earthy and musty flavors are the biggest contributions from the brett.  As I said earlier, I think Brett brux dominated the fermentation.  I used a Wyeast smack pack this time, but next time I will definitely be sourcing a lambic blend from East Coast Yeast and hope to have a more diverse brett presence.

Palate: Again, the carbonation is still low at this point, so it is not as effervescent as I targeted.  Aside from that, there is a great body on the cider.  It is light and fresh without feeling thin.

Overall: I am very happy with how balanced and funky this cider is.  I am thrilled that the experiment worked and look forward to making some slight refining shifts when we produce a lot more of this.  I think barrel aging will add a lot of complementing aroma and flavor characters, but even as is this is a very nice cider with a lot going on.  I'm looking forward to seeing how it continues to develop in the bottle.

August 21, 2013

Site updates & side projects

Many of you have probably already noticed, but I have been making a few updates to the site.  Most noticeably, I finally ponied up the ~$10 and registered a domain.  All of the old links you may have saved will still work, but instead of showing up to a ".blogspot.com/..." domain, you will be redirected to "funkfactorygeuzeria.com/...".

Next, I've split the cider related projects from the rest of the posts.  At the top bar you will see Home, Lambic, and Cider.  Blogspot, as of yet, doesn't allow for actually posting to different pages, so this is a little work around.  Home is everything, Lambic is everything non-cider, and Cider is obviously all cider related posts.  Additionally, I've added a direct link to the Brett Strain Guide up there.

I've also created a Facebook page for the site. I'd like to keep the main site clean and resource focused, so for the little things that occur that don't quite warrant a blog post, I'll be using Facebook. Also, all of the posts from here on out will show up on the Facebook page. If you are on Facebook, you can click the "like" button on the right side bar. -->

While we wait another year for the barrels to be old enough to start making fruited lambic, I have re-attempted making Sikaru with some young barrels.  A couple months ago, 200lbs of organic dates were shipped to the brewery where I selected the two most mature barrels from batch 1 (which is 1 year old).  We pitted 30% of the dates and added 100lbs of dates to each barrel.  My original thought was to let these ferment in the barrel for the typical 3 months, but after discovering how much sugar dates contain, it may take longer for these barrels to finish fermenting!

The other side project going on is a sour blonde.  The yield from our batch 2 brewday was not as high as the first batch (winter vs summer), and so two of the emptied lambic barrels from racking over batch 1 were not filled with new lambic wort.  To make use of these barrels we filled them with Blonde Ale wort and allowed the bugs in the barrel to ferment the beer. After aging for 6 months these barrels are ready.  To make room for a fruit addition, some of the base beer was kegged. A sample of it showed up at Great Taste and will show up at future O'so events. The rest of it will be fruited in the barrels and eventually bottled.

Keep your eyes open (or watch the FB page for updates), these small side projects should be available this fall/winter.

June 24, 2013

Cider Fermentation Panel: Bottling & Tasting

06/24/13

Last weekend I met the guys at Leidel's orchard for a final taste and to bottle the ciders.  I'm glad we tasted these again as there are some big differences on a few batches.  We purposefully didn't look up our old tasting notes and only compared after we had re-tasted them all and made new notes.  Here are our notes from this session:

  1. Brett drie (BSI)
    - some tartness, light, crisp, refreshing, although a bit thin.
  2. Brett custersianus
    - sweet, tropical, pineapple/mango, nice body.
  3. Brett nanus
    - barnyard and pineapple aroma, tastes strongly of pineapple juice. great flavor, but kind of intense.
  4. Brett lambicus (wyeast)
    - not flavorful, watery.  slightly cheesy and tart.
  5. Brett bruxellensis (wyeast)
    - very flavorful. pear, melon, citrus and a bit of alcohol.
  6. Brett claussenii (WL)
    - pungent aroma, citrus, floral, and dry.  saison-like.
  7. Brett fantome
    - pretty good mouthfeel.  complex, tart apple, a very soft blue-cheese like funk (good), nice funky aroma.
  8. Saccharomyces paradoxus
    - watery, slight funk and citrus.
  9. Brett blend
    - got a lot going on, but not very flavorful as a whole.  funky, fruity, citrus.
  10. Brett blend and oenococcus
    - muted flavor as compared to #9.  The acidity was mellowed, and so I see there may be potential value in this addition, but likely only as a secondary fermentation, or partial blend.
  11. Brett blend with maltodextrin addition
    - As compared to #9, a bit drier of a finish, thicker body, more robust flavor. a bit more alcohol.
We decided only Drie, Custer, Nanus, Brux, Claussenii, and Fantome were worth bottling.  The plan is to open these bottles over the summer and get a good understanding of each strain and how they may develop now that they are off the traub. For larger production this fall, we will be making a couple blends from the strains we like best.

Some interesting information comes in comparing our notes from the sampling we did a month ago.  The biggest changes were in Nanus and Claussenii.  A month ago Nanus tasted of rotting fruit and cheese.  It wasn't even drinkable, but now it was one of our favorites and had a huge pineapple flavor.  Claussenii was very stale in flavor, but now has a beautiful floral/citrus flavor.  

If you are looking to brew a brett cider, it is important to note that brettanomyces continues working even after fermentation has completed and it may take a couple months to develop the desired flavor.  For those homebrewers who don't want to wait more than a month, I would recommend Wyeast's B. bruxellensis (note: this is different than White Lab's) as it had a great flavor profile in both tasting sessions and is an easy strain to obtain.

On a side note, I also bottled up my Cider Keeve and Foraged Farmhouse the previous weekend.  More on that coming soon...
Bottled cider keeve.
Bottled Cider Keeve.
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